Michael L. Gross
Campus Box 1134
Our main research goal is the development of biophysical methods that use mass spectrometry to understand proteins, their interfaces, solvent accessibility, affinities of binding, and their folding and unfolding. With support from the NIH, we work with proteins of biomedical importance, often with collaborators at WU and beyond, and with support from DOE, we work on proteins important in photosynthesis, often with Robert Blankenship of our department.
One approach for footprinting is to map proteins with reactions of OH radicals. We termed our version “fast photochemical oxidation of proteins” or FPOP whereby we “paint” certain surface-accessible amino-acid residues by reacting the protein in a flow tube (see figure below) with radicals generated from H2O2 by a pulsed KrF laser (248 nm). With appropriate scavengers, the reaction time is remarkably short (~ 1 μsec). Certain amino acids react with the radicals to become oxidized (depicted as turning from “green” to “yellow”—see figure below). FPOP is useful for determining protein-protein interfaces, affinities for tiny amounts of proteins in biophysics, drug discovery, and epitope mapping. It is being adopted by biotechnology companies for quality control of protein therapeutics and for determining sites of interaction between a protein therapeutic and its target protein.
A unique application of FPOP is to follow fast protein folding or unfolding. An example is the refolding of the protein barstar. The unfolded form of the protein in a flowing solution is rapidly heated by a laser pulse. At various times on the microsecond level following its start to fold, a second laser generates OH radicals whose reactions track the folding. As shown in the figure below are five residues (H17, I5, L20, L24, and F74) whose labeling becomes less as they are involved in formation of a hydrophobic core that can be viewed as the nucleus for its folding. Few other experimental approaches can bring this level of detail to this important question in biophysics.
Footprinting can use many other reactions, and we are developing and applying these reactions. For example, we use labeling with NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) to follow changes in the local environment of Cys, GEE (glycyl ethyl ester) to monitor changes of Asp and Glu, and carbenes to complement OH radical labeling especially of amino acids that are relatively “silent” to reactions with •OH.
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) is another focus where we develop new methods and use them in problem solving. Examples are pulsed HDX for following aggregation of Aβ, the plaque-forming protein in Alzheimer’s disease, and pH-dependent HDX for monitoring protein conformational changes as pH decreases. We also use an HDX titration to determine protein-ligand affinities, a method we term PLIMSTEX (Protein Ligand Interaction by Mass Spectrometry, Titration and H/D Exchange). The figure below shows the titration of fatty-acid-binding protein (structure on upper left) with the fatty-acid ligand, potassium oleate, to give a complex (on lower right) that now contains the fatty-acid anion. The y-axis data come from MS, and the solid line is computed from our model that gives the equilibrium constant for the protein-ligand interaction. We are interested in applying this idea to determining affinities for specific regions of proteins, which is difficult by other affinity measurements.
We also utilize native electrospray where near-native forms of a protein or a protein complex are introduced into a mass spectrometer. We discovered that activating the entire complex (note the large m/z on the x axis) by electron-capture dissociation (ECD) causes flexible regions of the constituent proteins to fragment. Example below is of FMO protein—collaboration with Blankenship—that fragments in those regions that are deemed flexible by x-ray crystallography (i.e., have large b factors). The right side of the spectrum shows data for the complex undergoing charge neutralization whereas the right side shows the fragments. We complement these measurements with ion mobility, to look more closely at the details of collisionally induced unfolding, and cross linking, to determine the topology of the complex.
Microsecond Time-Scale Hydroxyl Radical Profiling of Solvent-Accessible Protein Residues, David M. Hambly and Michael L. Gross, chapter in Compehensive Analytical Chemistry, 52, 151-177 (2009).
Combined Charged Residue-Field Emission Model of Macromolecular Electrospray Ionization, C.J. Hogan Jr, J.A. Carroll, H.W. Rohrs, P. Biswas, and Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 81, 369-377, (2009).
The Balance of Benefical and Deleterious health Effects of Quinones: A Case Study of the Chemical Properties of Genistein and Estrone Quinones, Qiang Zhang, Tingting Tu, Andre d’Avignon, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131, 1067-1076, (2009).
2-Nitrophenyl Aryl Sulfides Undergo both Intramolecular and Electrospray-induced Intermolecular Oxidation of Sulfur: An Experimental and Theoretical Case Study, Joseph T. Moolayil, M. George, Daryl Giblin, Michael L. Gross, Int J. Mass Spectrom., 283, 222-228, (2009).
Isolation and Identification of Two Novel SDS-Resistant Secreted Chitinases from Aeromonas schubertii, Chao-Lin, Chia-Rui Shen, Fong-Fu Hsu, Jeen-Kuan Chen, Pei-Tzu Wu, Shang-Hsin Guo, Wen-Chien Lee, Feng-Wei Yu, Zachary B. Mackey, John Turk, and Michael L. Gross, Biotechnol. Prog., 25, 1, 124-131, (2009).
Method Revealing Bacterial Cell-Wall Architecture by Time-Dependent Isotope Labeling and Quantitative Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Gary J. Patti, Jiawei Chen, and Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 81, 2437-2455, (2009).
Gas-Phase Nazarov Cyclization of Protonated 2-Methoxy and 2-Hydroxychalcone: An Example of Intramolecular Proton-Transport Catalysis, Mathai George, Valarkottu S. Sebastian, Putluri Nagi Reddy, Ragampeta Srinivas, Daryl Giblin, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, 20, 805-818, (2009).
Membrane Orientation of the FMO Antenna Protein from Chlorobaculum tepidum as Determined by Mass Spectrometry-based Footprinting, Jianzhong Wen, Hao Zhang, Michael L. Gross, and Robert E. Blankenship, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 6134-6139, (2009).
Radical Cation/Radical Reactions: A Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Study of Allyl Radical Reacting with Aromatic Radical Cations, Amber L. Russell, Henry W. Rohrs, David Read, Daryl .E. Giblin, Peter P. Gaspar, Michael L. Gross, Int J. Mass Spectrom., 287, 8-15, (2009).
An Endogenous Peptide Positively Selects and Augments the Activation and Survival of Peripheral CD4+ T cells, Wan-Lin Lo, Nathan J. Felix, James J. Walters, Henry Rohrs, Michael L. Gross, Paul M. Allen, Nature Immunology, 10, 1155-1161, (2009).
The Gramicidin Dimer Shows Both EX1 and EX2 Mechanisms of H/D Exchange, Raghu K. Chitta, Don L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, 20, 1813-1820, (2009).
Photocrosslinking of Human Telomeric G-quadruplex Loops by anti Cyclobutane Thymine Dimer Formation, Dian G.T. Su, Huafeng Fang, Michael L. Gross, John-Stephen A.Taylor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 12861-12866, (2009).
Miniaturizing Sample Spots for Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry, Tingting Tu and Michael L. Gross, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 28, 833-841, (2009).
Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Protein Footprints Faster than Protein Unfolding, Brian C. Gau, Joshua S. Sharp, Don L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 81, 6563-6571, (2009).
Cold Chemical Oxidation of Proteins, David M. Hambly and Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 81, 7235-7242, (2009).
Organization of Lower Rim O-Alkylated p-Phosphonic Acid Calixarenes, Thomas E. Clark, Mohamed Makha, Alexandre N. Sobolev, Dian Su, Henry Rohrs, Michael L. Gross, and Colin L. Raston, Crystal Growth & Design, 9, 3575-3580, (2009).
A Single Peptide–MHC Complex Positively Selects a Diverse and Specific CD8 T Cell Repertoire, Baomei Wang, Tina M. Primeau, Nancy Myers, Henry W. Rohrs, Michael L. Gross, Lonnie Lybarger, Ted H. Hansen, Janet M. Connolly, Science, 326, 871-874, (2009).
Online, High-Pressure Digestion System for Protein Characterization by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and Mass Spectrometry, Lisa M. Jones, Hao Zhang, Ilan Vidavsky, and Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 82, 1171-1174, (2010).
A Tuning Method for Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Traps, Adam M. Brustkern, Don L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, 21, 451-454 (2010).
A New Photoproduct of 5-Methylcytosine and Adenine Characterized by HPLC and Mass Spectrometry, Dian G. T. Su, John-Stephen A. Taylor, and Michael L. Gross, Chem. Res. Toxicol, 23, 474-479 (2010)
Protein-Peptide Affinity Determination Using an H/D Exchange Dilution Strategy: Application to Antigen-Antibody Interactions, Tingting Tu, T., M. Drǎguşanu, B.-A. Petre, Don L. Rempel, Michael Przybylski, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, 21, 1660-1667 (2010).
Sulfate Radical Anion as a New Reagent for Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins, Brian C. Gau, B.C., Hao Chen, Y. Zhang, and Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem. 82, 7821-7827 (2010).
Radio Frequency-Only-Mode Event and Trap Compensation in Penning Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry, A. M. Brustkern, D. L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, in Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry, Vol. IV, Theory and Instrumentation, R.E. March and J. F. J. Todd, CRC Press, 433-468 (2010).
Native Electrospray and Electron-Capture Dissociation in FTICR Mass Spectrometry Provide Top-Down Sequencing of a Protein Component in an Intact Protein Assembly, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, Jianzhong Wen, Robert E. Blankenship, Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 21, 1066-68 (2010).
Improved Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Protein Glycosylation Reveals Unusual Glycosylation of Maize-Derived Bovine Trypsin, Hao Zhang, Richard Y-C. Huang, Pegah R. Jalili, Janet W. Irungu, Gordon R. Nicol, Kevin B. Ray, Henry W. Rohrs, Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem. 82, 10095-10101 (2010).
T-jump and Fast Photochemical Oxidation Probe Sub Millisecond Protein Folding, Jiawei Chen, Don L. Rempel, Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 15502–15504 (2010).
Layered Calcium Structures of p-Phosphonic Acid-methyl-calixarene, Thomas E. Clark, Adam Martin, Mohamed Makha, Alexandre N. Sobolev, Dian Su, Henry W. Rohrs, Michael L. Gross, and Colin L. Raston, Cryst. Growth Design, 10, 3211-3217 (2010)
Ion behavior in an Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Trap, Adam M. Brustkern, Don L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 300, 143-148 (2011).
Hydrophobic Peptides Affect Binding of Calmodulin and Ca2+ as Explored by H/D Amide Exchange and Mass Spectrometry, Justin B. Sperry, Richard Y-C. Huang, Mei M. Zhu, Don L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 302, 85–92 (2011)
Structural Model and Spectroscopic Characteristics of the FMO Antenna Protein from the Aerobic Chlorophototroph, Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum. Jianzhong Wen, Yusuke Tsukatani, Weidong Cui, Hao Zhang, Michael L. Gross, Donald A. Bryant, Robert E. Blankenship, Biochim Biophys Acta, 1807, 157–164 (2011)
Mass Spectrometry and Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) for Comparing Structures of Protein/Ligand Complexes: The Calmodulin-peptide Model System, Hao Zhang, Brian C. Gau, Lisa M. Jones, Ilan Vidavsky, Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 83, 311–318 (2011).
Interactions of APE1 with a redox inhibitor: Evidence for an Alternate Conformation of the Enzyme, Dian Su, Sarah Delaplane, Meihua Luo, Don L. Rempel, Bich Vu, Mark R. Kelley, Michael L. Gross, and Millie M. Georgiadis, Biochem. 50, 82-92 (2011).
Functional Analysis of Novel Analogs of E3330 that Block the Redox Signaling Activity of the Multifunctional AP Endonuclease/redox Signaling Enzyme APE1/Ref-1, Mark R. Kelley, Meihua Luo, April Reed, Dian Su, Sarah Delaplane, Richard Borch, Rodney L Nyland II, Michael L Gross, Millie Georgiadis, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 14, 1387-1401 (2011).
Native Electrospray Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Nature and Stoichiometry of Pigments in the FMO Photosynthetic Antenna Protein, Jianzhong Wen, Hao Zhang, Michael L. Gross, and Robert E. Blankenship, Biochem., 50, 3502-3511 (2011).
Mapping the Protein-Protein Interface Between a Toxin and its Cognate Antitoxin from the Bacterial Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, Justin B. Sperry, Craig L. Smith, CL, Michael G. Caparon, Tom Ellenberger, Michael L. Gross, ML, Biochem., 50, 4038-4045 (2011).
Carboxyl-Group Footprinting Maps the Dimerization Interface and Phosphorylation-induced Conformational Changes of a Membrane-associated Tyrosine Kinase, Hao Zhang, Wei Shen, Don Rempel, John Monsey, Ilan Vidavsky, Michael L. Gross, and Ron Bose, Molecular Cellular Proteomics, 2011 10(6), 1-16 M110.005678. PubMed PMID: 21422241; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3108836. (2011).
Structural Determinant of Chemical Reactivity and Potential Health Effects of Quinones from Natural Products, Tingting Tu, Daryl Giblin, and Michael L. Gross, Chem. Research Toxicology, 24, 1527-1539 (2011)
HD Exchange and PLIMSTEX Determine the Affinities and Order of Binding of Ca2+ with Troponin C, Richard Y-C. Huang, Don L. Rempel, and Michael L. Gross, Biochem., 50, 5426–5435 (2011).
Native Electrospray and Electron-capture Dissociation FTICR Mass Spectrometry for Top-down Studies of Protein Assemblies, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, Jianzhong Wen, Robert E. Blankenship, Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 83, 5598-5606 (2011).
Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins for Epitope Mapping, Lisa M. Jones, Justin B. Sperry, James A. Carroll, Michael L. Gross, Anal. Chem., 83, 7657-7661 (2011)
Top-down Mass Spectrometry: Recent Developments, Applications, and Perspectives, Weidong Cui, Henry W. Rohrs and Michael L. Gross, Analyst, 136, 3854–3864 (2011).
Deprotonated N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)amino Acids Undergo Cyclization in Solution and the Gas Phase, M. George, V. Ramesh, R. Srinivas, Daryl Giblin, Michael L. Gross, Intl. J. Mass Spectrom. 306, 232– 240 (2011)
Mass spectrometry-based Protein Footprinting Characterizes the Structures of Oligomeric Apolipoprotein E2, E3, and E4, Brian Gau, Kanchan Garai, Carl Frieden, and Michael L. Gross, Biochemistry, 50, 8117-8126 (2011)
Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry Determine the Interface and Dynamics of Apolipoprotein E Oligomerization, Richard Y-C. Huang, Kanchan Garai, Carl Frieden, and Michael L. Gross, Biochemistry, 50, 9273–9282 (2011)
Psb27, a Transiently Associated protein, Binds to the Chlorophyll Binding Protein CP43 in Photosystem II Assembly Intermediates, Haijun Liu, Richard Y.-C. Huang, Jiawei Chen, Michael L. Gross, and Himadri B. Pakrasi, Proceedings National Academy Sciences (USA), 108, 18536-18541 (2011).
S-Glutathionylation of Cysteine 99 in the APE1 Protein Impairs Abasic Endonuclease Activity, Yun-Jeong Kim, Daemyung Kim, Jennifer L Illuzzi, Sarah Delaplane; Dian Su; Michel Bernier, Michael L Gross; Millie M Georgiadis; David M. Wilson, III, Journal of Molecular Biology, 414, 313-326 (2011).
Autoproteolytic Fragments are Intermediates in the Oligomerization/Aggregation of the Parkinson's Disease Protein Alpha-Synuclein as Revealed by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry, C. Vlad, K. Lindner, C. Karreman, S. Schildknecht, M. Leist, N. Tomczyk, J. Rontree, J. Langridge, K. Danzer, T. Ciossek, Alina Petre, Michael L. Gross, B. Hengerer, Michael Przybylski, ChemBioChem, 12, 2740-27444 (2011).
Chemical Footprinting for Determining Protein Properties and Interactions, by Sandra A. Kerfoot and Michael L. Gross, in Protein and Peptide Mass Spectrometry in Drug Discovery ed. by M.L. Gross, G. Chen, and B. Pramanik, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, Chapter 13, 175-211(2012)
Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Interaction of Fenna–Matthews–Olson Protein and Chlorosome CsmA Protein, Richard Y-C. Huang, Jianzhong Wen, Robert E. Blankenship, and Michael L. Gross, Biochemistry, 51, 187-193 (2012)
Characterization of the Redox Activity and Disulfide Bond Formation in Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Meihua Luo, Jun Zhang, Hongzhen He, Dian Su, Qiujia Chen, Michael L. Gross, Mark R. Kelley,and Millie M. Georgiadis, Biochemistry, 51, 695-705 (2012)
Mass spectrometry-based Carboxyl Footprinting of Proteins: Method evaluation, Hao Zhang, Jianzhong Wen, Richard Y-C. Huang, Robert E. Blankenship, Michael L. Gross, Intl. J. Mass Spectrom. 312, 78-86 (2012).
Isolation of the Magic-Size CdSe Nanoclusters [(CdSe)13(n-octylamine)13] and [(CdSe)13(oleylamine)13], Yuanyuan Wang, Yi-Hsin Liu, Ying Zhang, Fudong Wang, Paul J. Kowalski, Henry W. Rohrs, Richard A. Loomis, Michael L. Gross, William E. Buhro, Angewandte Chemie Int’l Ed., 51, 6154-6157 (2012)
New Protein Footprinting: Fast Photochemical Iodination Combined with Top-Down and Bottom-Up Mass Spectrometry, Jiawei Chen, Weidong Cui, Daryl Giblin and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 23, 1306-1318 (2012).
Native Mass Spectrometry Characterizes Intact Nanodisc Lipoprotein Complexes, Michael T. Marty, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, Robert E. Blankenship, Michael L. Gross, Stephen G. Sligar, Anal. Chem., 84, 8957-8960 (2012).
Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) and Mass Spectrometry Follow Sub-millisecond Protein Folding at the Amino-Acid Level, Jiawei Chen, Don L. Rempel, Brian C. Gau, Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134, 18724–18731 (2012).
Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Reflects Binding of Human Centrin 2 to Ca2+ and Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Peptide: An Example of EX1 Kinetics, Justin B. Sperry, Zachary C. Ryan, Rajiv Kumar, Michael L. Gross, Int’l. J. Mass Spectrom., 330–332, 302–309 (2012).
Native mass spectrometry of photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, Michael L. Gross, Robert E. Blankenship, FEBS Letters, 587 1012–1020 (2013).
H/D Exchange Centroid Monitoring is Insufficient to Show Differences in the Behavior of Protein States, Jun Zhang, Pradeep Ramachandran, Rajiv Kumar, Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 24, 450-453 (2013)
Mass spectrometry-based footprinting reveals structural dynamics of loop e of the chlorophyll-binding protein CP43 during photosystem II assembly in the cyanobacterium synechocystis 6803, Haijun Liu, Jaiwei Chen, Richard Y-C Huang, Daniel Weisz, Michael L. Gross, and Himadri B. Pakrasi, J. Biol. Chem., 288, 14212-14220 (2013).
Complementary MS Methods Assist Conformational Characterization of Antibodies with Altered S-S Bonding Networks, Lisa M. Jones, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, Sandeep Kumar, Justin B. Sperry, James A. Carroll, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 24, 835-845 (2013)
Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins for Comparing Solvent-Accessibility Changes Accompanying Protein Folding: Data Processing and Application to Barstar, Brian C. Gau Jiawei Chen, and Michael L. Gross, Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 1834, 1230-1238 (2013)
Inhibition of Apurinic/apyrimidinic Endonuclease I's Redox Activity Revisited, J. Zhang, M. Luo, D. Marasco, D. Logsdon, K.A. Lafavers, Q. Chen, A. Reed, M.R. Kelley, Michael L. Gross, and M. M. Georgiadis, Biochemistry, 52, 2955-2966 (2013)
Native electrospray ionization and electron-capture dissociation for comparison of protein structure in solution and the gas phase, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, and Michael L. Gross, Int’l J. Mass Spectrom., 354–355, 288–291 (2013).
Pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry probes conformational changes in amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation, Ying Zhang, Don L. Rempel, Jun Zhang, Anuj K. Sharma, Liviu M. Mirica, and Michael L. Gross, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110, 14604-9 (2013)
Phycobilisomes Supply Excitations to Both Photosystems in a Megacomplex in Cyanobacteria, Haijun Liu, Hao Zhang, Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki, Mindy Prado, Guannan He, Michael L. Gross, Robert E. Blankenship, Science, 342, 1104-1107 (2013).
Molecular Mechanism of Photoactivation and Structural Location of the Cyanobacterial Orange Carotenoid Protein, Hao Zhang, Haijun Liu, D.M. Niedzwiedzki, M. Prado, J. Jiang, Michael L. Gross, Robert E. Blankenship, Biochemistry, 53, 13-19 (2014)
Interpretation and Deconvolution of Nanodisc Native Mass Spectra, M.T. Marty, H. Zhang, W. Cui, Michael L. Gross, and S.G. Sligar, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 25, 265-277 (2014).
Mass spectrometry for the biophysical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, and Michael L. Gross, FEBS Letters, 588, 308-317 (2014)
The role of methoxy group in the Nazarov Cyclization of 1,5-bis-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one in the Gas Phase and Condensed Phase, J. Cyriac, J. Paulose, George, Mathai, M. Ramesh, R. Srinivas, Daryl Giblin, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 25, 398-409 (2014).
MS-based cross-linking analysis reveals the location of the PsbQ protein in cyanobacterial photosystem II, H. Liu, H. Zhang, D.A. Weisz, I. Vidavsky, Michael L Gross, and H.B. Pakrasi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 111, 4638-4643 (2014).
Mass spectrometry combinations for structural characterization of sulfated-steroid metabolites, Yuetian Yan, Don L. Rempel, Timothy E. Holy, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 25, 869-879 (2014).
High-energy collision-induced dissociation by MALDI TOF/TOF causes charge-remote fragmentation of steroid sulfates, Yuetian Yan, M. Ubukata, Robert B. Cody, Timothy E. Holy, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 25, 1404-1411 (2014)
Analysis of SecA dimerization in solution, A.J. Wowor, Y. Yan, S.M. Auclair, D.Yu, J. Zhang, E.R. May, Michael L. Gross, D.A. Kendall, and J.L. Cole, Biochemistry, 53, 3248-3260 (2014).
Monitoring the Refolding Event of the Parainfluenza Virus F (PIV5) Fusion Protein Using Oxidative Footprinting and Mass Spectrometry, Taylor A. Poor, Lisa M. Jones, Amika Sood, George P. Leser, Manolo D. Plasencia, Don L. Rempel, Theodore S. Jardetzky, Robert J. Woods, Michael L. Gross, Robert A. Lamb, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 111, E2596-E2605 (2014)
Structural analysis of diheme cytochrome c by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and homology modeling, Ying Zhang, E.L.-W. Majumder, H. Yue, Robert E. Blankenship, and Michael L. Gross, Biochemistry, 53, 5619-5630 (2014).
Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry reveal the pH-dependent conformational changes of Diphtheria toxin T domain, Jing Li, M.V. Rodnin, A.S. Ladokhin, and Michael L., Biochemistry, 53, 6849-6856 (2014)
Fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) maps the epitope of EGFR binding to adnectin, Y. Yan, G. Chen, H. Wei, R.Y. Huang, J. Mo, D.L. Rempel, A.A. Tymiak, and M.L. Gross, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom, 25, 2084-2092 (2014)
“De-novo” amino acid sequence elucidation of protein G′e by combined “Top-Down” and “Bottom-Up” mass spectrometry,Y. Yefremova, M. Al-Majdoub, K.F.M. Opuni, C. Koy, W. Cui, Y. Yan, Michael L. Gross, and Michael O. Glocker, J. Am. Mass Spectrom., 26, 482-492 (2015)
An Improved Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) Platform for Protein Therapeutics, Ying Zhang, D. L. Rempel, Hao Zhang, and Michael L. Gross, J. Am. Mass Spectrom., 26, 526-529 (2015)
Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design, D.J. Slade, P. Fang, C.J. Dreyton, Y. Zhang, D. Rempel, D.B. Bax, S.A. Coonrod, H.D. Lewis, M.L. Gross, and P.R. Thompson, ACS Chemical Biology, 10, 1043-1053 (2015).
Dosimetry Determines the Initial OH Radical Concentration in Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP), B. Niu B, H. Zhang H, D. Giblin, D.L. Rempel, M.L. Gross ML. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 26, 843-846 (2015)
Electron-capture dissociation and ion mobility mass spectrometry for characterization of the hemoglobin protein assembly, W. Cui, H. Zhang, R.E. Blankenship, and Michael L. Gross, Protein Science, 24, 1325-1332 (2015)
Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Unique Conformational and Chemical Transformations Occurring upon [4Fe-4S] Cluster Binding in the Type 2 L-Serine Dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila, Yuetian Yan, Gregory A. Grant, and Michael L. Gross, Biochemistry, 54, 5322–5328 (2015)
A Molecular Code for Identity in the Vomeronasal System, Xiaoyan Fu, Yuetian Yan, Pei S. Xu, Ilan Geerlof-Vidavsky, Wongi Chong, Michael L. Gross, and Timothy E. Holy, Cell, 163, 1-11 (2015)
2013, EAS Award for Achievements in Mass Spectrometry, Eastern Analytical Symposium
2012, Wolfgang Paul Lectureship, Mass Spectrometry Societies of Germany and Poland
2011, Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan, Honorary Lifetime Membership
2008, Bruker Daltonics Lectureship, University of Konstanz, Germany
2008, Freiser Lectureship, Purdue University
2006, J.J. Thomson Medal for Service to Int'l MS, Foundation for International Mass Spectrometry
2005, Excellence in Mentoring Award, Washington University Graduate Student Senate
2005, New Jersey Distinguished Lectureship, NJ Section ACS Mass Spectrometry Discussion Group
2004, Outstanding Mentor Award, Washington University Graduate Student Senate
2002, Midwest Award for Achievements in Chemistry, American Chemical Society
2002, Excellence in Mentoring Award, Washington University Graduate Student Senate
2001, Watkins Visiting Professor, Witchita State University
2001, Outstanding Mentor Award, Washington University Graduate Student Senate
2000, Frontiers in Chemistry Lectureship, Wayne State University
2000, Plenary Lecture, Vienna Mass Spectrometry Colloquium
2000, Plenary Lecture, EnviroAnalysis 2000
1999, Field and Franklin Award, American Chemical Society
1998, Plenary Lecture, Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists' Int'l Meeting
1998, Plenary Lecture, HPLC International Symposium
1997, Plenary Lecture, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale
1997, Plenary Lecture, Igler MS Tage, Innsbruck
1996, Guest Faculty, NATO School on Biol. Mass Spectrometry
1995, Pioneers in Chemistry Series, Texas A&M University
1995, Plenary Lecture, Western Biotechnology Conference, San Diego
1995, Plenary Lecture, FDA Mass Spectrom. Symposium, Washington DC
1994, Plenary Lecture, Australia/New Zealand MS Conference, Melbourne
1993, Guest Professor, NATO Adv. Study Inst. Biol. MS, Ischia, Italy
1993, Plenary Lecture, Colloquium Spectroscopium Internationale
1993, Plenary Lecture, Taiwan Int'l Chemistry Conference
1993, Plenary Lecture, Indian Society for Mass Spectrometry
1993, Lifetime Member, Indian Society for Mass Spectrometry
1993, Kraft Lectureship, Indiana University
1992, Plenary Lecture, European Tandem Mass Spectrom. Conf.
1992, Recognized as 50 Most Cited Chemists, Institute for Scientific Information, 1984-1991
1991, Plenary Lecture, Australian Symposium on Analytical Chem.
1991, Plenary Lecture, Elsevier Anal. Advances for the 90s Symposium
1990, Van't Hoff Visiting Professor, Int'l Graduate School, University of Amsterdam
1990, Guest Pfrofessor, NATO Adv. Study Inst. in Biol. Mass Spectrometry
1988, Albright & Wilson Visiting Professor, University of Warwick
1988, Plenary Lecture, American Society for Mass Spectrometry
1987, Pioneer Award, Commonwealth of Mass "In Search for the Health Consequences of Dioxin in Our Environment."
1987, Hertel Lectureship, University of Tennessee
1987, Alan Maccoll Plenary Lectureship, British Royal Society for Mass Spectrometry
1987, Plenary Lecture, British Royal Society "Spectroscopy Across Spectrum"
1986, J.C. Karcher Lectureship, University of Oklahoma
1986, Plenary Lectureship, Versailles International Workshop on Ion-Molecule Rxs.
1984, Distinguished Lecture Series, Indiana University
1984, Plenary Lecture, Swiss/French Mass Spectrometry Conference
1984, Third Cycle Lectures, Eidegenössische Technische Hochschule Lausanne
1978, Foundation Medal for Distinguished Teaching, University of Nebraska
Chemistry 112, General Chemistry
Chemistry 152, General Chemistry Laboratory
Chemistry 550, Advanced Topics in Mass Spectrometry